A holistic approach to CAKUT (Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract)

Giuseppe Masnata

Abstract


The urinary tract malformations, today called CAKUT (Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract), include a range of morphological and/or functional abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract diseases, apart from being the main cause of renal failure in children. The frequency of these birth defects is around 2% of pregnancies and many genetic syndromes may include CAKUT: about 500 of them have been described. The CAKUT concern localized alterations at different levels of the urinary system: hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux, duplex collecting system, megaureter, kidney dysplasia. In the approach to the child with CAKUT it is important to identify a population at risk, distinguishing between CAKUT with and without clinical significance, applying a tailored approach to the individual patient, avoiding unnecessary investigations and treatments.

Keywords


CAKUT (Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract); urinary tract infection; chronic kidney disease; follow-up

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