A holistic approach to CAKUT (Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract)

Giuseppe Masnata


The urinary tract malformations, today called CAKUT (Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract), include a range of morphological and/or functional abnormalities of the kidney and urinary tract diseases, apart from being the main cause of renal failure in children. The frequency of these birth defects is around 2% of pregnancies and many genetic syndromes may include CAKUT: about 500 of them have been described. The CAKUT concern localized alterations at different levels of the urinary system: hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux, duplex collecting system, megaureter, kidney dysplasia. In the approach to the child with CAKUT it is important to identify a population at risk, distinguishing between CAKUT with and without clinical significance, applying a tailored approach to the individual patient, avoiding unnecessary investigations and treatments.


CAKUT (Congenital Anomalies of the Kidney and Urinary Tract); urinary tract infection; chronic kidney disease; follow-up

Full Text: PDF Number of abstract views: 3476 Number of PDF views/downloads: 4459


N.B. All JPNIM articles are accessible in Open Access. You can access the page containing the full PDF article just by clicking on the “Full Text: PDF” link at the bottom of the abstract page. On the full article page, if the article doesn’t load properly in the PDF view window, please wait a few seconds or click on the “Download this PDF file” link.

Technical advice. If you are using Firefox and you are experiencing problems, please set the browser preferences as follows: Firefox > Preferences > Advanced > General > Accessibility > deselect "Warn me when web sites try to redirect or reload the page".

Privacy Policy. English text: Privacy Policy; Italian text: Privacy Policy.

Cookie Policy. English text: Cookie Policy; Italian text: Cookie Policy.